Updated: 2013-12-09

Appi forest meteorology research site (API)

Forests around Appi forest meteorology research site

Overview of this site

Appi forest meteorology research site is located in a mildly-sloped tableland of west foot of Mt. Nishimori in Hachimantai city, Iwate Prefecture. It is a secondary forest of boreal deciduous broadleaf forest mainly with japanese beech. There is not much vegetation on the forest floor and evergreen trees are rarely seen. It snows heavily from November to May and snow depth reaches 2m.

Position40° 0.100′ N (40.0017° N),
140° 56.250′ E (140.9375° E)
Climate ClassificationContinental (Dfb, Continental - Fully humid - Warm summer)
Annual Mean Temperature5.9°C(year 2000-2006)
Annual Precipitation1869mm(year 2007-2009)
Annual Mean Solar Raadiation12.7MJm-2day-1(year 2000-2006)
Monthly mean temperature (year 2000-2006) and precipitation (year 2007-2009)
Monthly mean solar radiation (year 2000-2006)
VegetationBoreal deciduous broadleaf forest
Fetchmax. 600m
Dominant SpeciesFagus crenata (Japanese beech)
Canopy Height19~20m (2009)
Aboveground Forest Biomass130~140tC ha-1
Max. Leaf Area Index4.8 (2000~2006 ave.)
Soil TypeAndosol
Moderately moist brown forest soil, BD(d)
Artificial DisturbanceNearest road (approx. 4m wide) is 0.2km away
Observation Period
PeriodApril 2000~ present
Tower Height32m
Access to Tower TopPossible
Electric Power SupplyCommercial power supply AC100V
Communication Equipmenttelephone (analog line)
AccommodationNot available


 Name and ModelLevel
Downward Short-wave RadiationKipp and Zonen, CM-6F31 m
Upward Short-wave RadiationKipp and Zonen, CM-6B31 m
Downward Long-wave RadiationEppley, PIR31 m
Upward Long-wave RadiationEppley, PIR31 m
Net Radiation(4 components)31 m
Downward PPFDLI-COR, Li190-SB31 m
Upward PPFDLI-COR, Li190-SB31 m
Downward PPFD below CanopyLI-COR, Li190-SB31, 15, 12, 9, 6 m
Air temperatureVisala, HMP-45D31, 26, 23, 21, 15, 12, 9, 6, 3 m
HumidityVisala, HMP-45D31, 24, 20, 18, 15, 12, 9, 6, 3 m
Wind SpeedIKEDA, WM-30P31, 26, 23, 21, 15, 12, 9, 6, 3 m
Wind DirectionYokogawa, A-80231 m
Barometric PressureVaisala, PTB-1002 m
Soil TemperatureNetsushin, Platinum resistance thermometer2, 5, 10, 20, 40, 80 cm deep
Soil Heat FluxEKO, MF-810.02 m deep, 2 places
Soil Water ContentCampbell, CS6155, 15, 30, 50, 80 cm deep
PrecipitationTipping bucket raingauge4.5 m
Snow DepthCampbell, SR50A3.5m
Data Logger
Sampling PeriodEvery 15 seconds
Averaging Period5 minutes
RecorderCampbell, CR-1000&AM16/32&AM25T
MediaCF card

Turbulence Fluctuation Method (Eddy Covariance Method)

Three-dimensional Sonic
KAIJO DAT-600-3T Sensor span0.2 m
Level31 m
Height from Canopy Surface12 m
Gas Analyzer
LI-COR LI-7000 Distance between
gas intake and analyzer
approx. 50 m
Height of intake31 m
Height from Canopy Surfaceapprox. 12 m
Gas analyzer
LI-COR LI-7500A Distance between
anemometer and analyzer
Data Logger
Sampling MethodContinuous
Averaging Period0 second
Sampling Frequency10 Hz
Filters for AntialiasingNot available
CutOff Frequency24 Hz
Recording RangeAll data
RecorderCampbell, CR-3000
Flux Calculation
Calculation Period1800 s
MethodDetrendingw, u, Ta, CO2, H2O
Coordinate RotationCorrected
Line AveragingNot-corrected
Sensor SeparationNot-corrected
Humidity Correction of Virtual TemperatureCorrected

Vertical profiling CO2 Concentration in Canopy

InstrumentsLI-COR, LI-6262
Sampling10 seconds
Sampling PeriodEvery 1 minutes at a level x 8 levels (31, 26, 23, 21, 15, 12, 9, 3 m)
Averaging Period10 seconds

Other Observation

InstrumentLI-COR LI-6400
Observation FrequencyOccasionally
Soil Respiration
MethodAutomatic switching closed-chamber
Observation FrequencyContinuous
MethodLitter Trap
Observation FrequencyOnce a month
MethodTree diameter and height
Observation Frequency-


YASUDA Yukio, SAITO Takeshi, HOSHINO Daisuke, ONO Kenji, OHTANI Yoshikazu, MIZOGUCHI Yasuko, MORISAWA Takeshi(2012): Carbon balance in a cool-temperate deciduous forest in northern Japan: seasonal and interannual variations, and environmental controls of its annual balance. Journal of Forest Research, 17(3):253-267.

HASHIMOTO Toru, MIURA Satoru, ISHIZUKA Shigehiro (2009):Temperature controls temporal variation in soil CO2 efflux in a secondary beech forest in Appi Highlands, Japan. Journal of Forest Ressearch, 14(1):44-50.

KOARASHI Jun, ATARASHI-ANDOH Mariko, ISHIZUKA Shigehiro, MIURA Satoru, SAITO Takeshi and HIRAI Keizo (2009): Quantitative aspects of heterogeneity in soil organic matter dynamics in a cool-temperate Japanese beech forest: a radiocarbon-based approach. Global Change Biology, 15(3):631-642.

HASHIMOTO Toru, MIURA Satoru, Ikeda Shigeto and Shichi Koji (2008): Estimation of spatial variation of soil CO2 efflux from tree index. Journal of Japan Forest Scoiety, 90(6):336-390 (in Japanese with English abstract).

ISHIZUKA Shigehiro, SAKATA Tadashi, SAWATA Satoshi, IKEDA Shigeto, TAKENAKA Chisato, TAMAI Nobuaki, SAKAI Hisao, SHIMIZU Takanori, KAN-NA Kensaku, ONODERA Shinichi, TANAKA Nagaharu, TAKAHASHI Masamichi (2006): High potential for increase in CO2 flux from forest soil surface due to global warming in cooler areas of Japan. Annals of Forest Science, 63(5):537-546.

Research Fund

- Major Facility Installation for Carbon Dioxide Monitoring, Forestry Agency, MAFF*

- Research Grant, FFPRI

- Research Fund (Evaluation, Adaptation and Mitigation of Global Warming in Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries: Research and Development), MAFF*

- Global Environment Research Account for National Institutes, MOE***

* MAFF: Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries of Japan
*** MOE: Ministry of the Environment



Cooperative Researchers

Kenji ONO, Daisuke HOSHINO, Gaku HITSUMA, Koji SHICHI, Takeshi SAITO, Yukihiro CHIBA

Contact Information

Forest Environment Group,
Tohoku Research Center,
Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute (FFPRI)
Address: 92-25 Nabeyashiki, Shimokuriyagawa,Morioka, Iwate, 020-0123 JAPAN
TEL: +81-19-641-2150 (main)