Observation Items

CO2 Budget of Forest

CO2 flux of forest:

Eddy covariance method using closed-path infra-red gas analyzer

CO2 concentration profile in forest canopy:

Time variation of CO2 concentration profile in forest community (5-8 levels)

Energy Budget in Forest


4 components measurement using pyranometer and pyrgeometer

Photosynthetically active radiation, PAR (Up- and down-ward above canopy; and down-ward under the crown)

Latent heat flux:

Band path covariance method using sonic anemometer-thermometer and thermohygrometer

Heat storage profile in canopy:

Temperature and humidity profile of air layer; soil temperature profile; and soil heat flux


Air temperature and humidity profile above canopy, vertical profile of wind velocity

Latent heat and CO2 flux above forest canopy measured by open-path infra-red gas analyzer

Soil water content and sap flow

Biomass, soil respiration, tree photosynthesis and respiration

CO2 Budget and Flux Observatino in the Forest

Example of Observation System

Turbulent Flux Observation

Sonic anemometer-thermometerDAT-600 / KAIJO
Closed-path infra-red gas analyzerLI-6262 / LI-COR
Open-path infra-red gas analyzer LI-7500 / LI-COR
ThermohygrometerHMP-155 / Vaisala; ventilated radiation shield ST-45 / Sanko Tsusho Co. Ltd.
Gas sampling scannerDSE-01A / Tokyo dylec Co.
Low-pass filter3315 / NF Corporation
Data loggerCR3000 / Campbell
Observation items12-16 items including 3-D components of wind velocity, temperature, humidity, CO2 concentration
Sampling frequency5-10Hz
Recording mediaCF card (1-2GB)
System Flow

Micrometeorological Observation

PyranometerCM-6F, CM-6B / Kipp&Zonen
Pyrgeometer PIR(Fan), PIR / Eppley
PAR sensorLI-190SA / LI-COR
ThermohygrometerHMP-155 / Vaisala; ventilated radiation shield ST-45 / Sanko Tsusho Co. Ltd.
AnemometersWMT52 / Vaisala
Soil heat sensorMF-81 / EKO
Closed-path infra-red gas analyzer LI-6262 / LI-COR
Gas sampling scannerDSG-08A / Tokyo dylec Co.
Data loggerCR1000 / Campbell
Sampling interval10s~30s
Recording interval5min~10min
Recording mediaInternal memory

Power Supply Equipment

Denoising automatic voltage regulator (100V AC, 10A) PSN-01 / DENKENSEIKI Research Institute Co., Ltd.
Uninterruptible power sourcePOWLI BX35XF / OMRON

Standard Gases

CO2450ppm air balance / SUMITOMO SEIKA CHEMICALS CO., LTD.

Observation Tower

Aluminium alloy tower: Nippon Light Metal Co., Ltd., UpRight Japn and ANDO Corporation
Iron self-supporting tower (API): ANDO Corporation